In the course of some innovation policy work that I’ve been doing over the past year, I’ve noticed that the public policy conversations around innovation are dominated by a focus on knowledge creation, so stuff like R&D spend, putting money into government labs, research institutes, etc. There is much less focus on the interactions between knowledge creators and industry actors/entrepreneurs. For the latter, we need to consider things like firm level adoption of technology, firm level readiness, access to technology from within or outside the country, technology commercialisation, technology transfer/transmission, and the overall ability for the country to be innovative, that goes beyond just knowledge creation and innovation inputs and outputs. This conceptual issue around innovation policy is important to consider, and has implications for how government’s support innovation. We seriously need to shift the debate beyond the narrow focus on knowledge creation alone, and towards fostering dynamic interaction among different players in the innovation eco0system.